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95
Length of exam section
1.5 hours

 

Exercise Sciences (59 scored questions)

A. Understand muscle anatomy and physiology:

  • Muscle anatomy (muscle group names, specific muscle names, muscle fiber/cell structures, etc.)
  • Muscular dynamics involved during movement patterns (e.g., sliding filament theory, type of muscle action)

B. Understand neuromuscular anatomy and physiology:

  • Neuromuscular anatomy (e.g., motor unit, Type I and II fibers, muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organ)
  • Neuromuscular responses to exercise (motor unit recruitment patterns, nerve conduction, summation, etc.)

C. Understand the basic principles of biomechanics regarding exercise selection, execution and sport performance:

  • Kinetic laws and principles of movement (lever systems, momentum, torque, power, work, force, center of gravity, impulse, center of pressure, force-velocity curve, force-time curve, etc.)
  • Kinematic laws and principles of movement (anatomical planes of movement, joint angles, isometric/isotonic/isokinetic, velocity, etc.)
  • Role of muscles in movement (e.g., agonist, antagonist, synergist, neutralizer, stabilizer)

D. Understand bone and connective tissue (tendons and ligaments) anatomy and physiology:

  • Bone and connective tissue anatomy
  • Bone and connective tissue responses to exercise

E. Understand bioenergetics and metabolism:

  • Characteristics of the energy systems
  • Effects of manipulating training variables (i.e., mode, intensity, duration, volume and work:rest ratio) to target specific energy systems

F. Understand neuroendocrine physiology:

  • Functions of hormones (testosterone, growth hormone, etc.)
  • Neuroendocrine responses to exercise

G. Understand cardiopulmonary anatomy and physiology:

  • Cardiopulmonary anatomy (structure of the heart, vascular system, lungs, etc.)
  • Cardiopulmonary responses to exercise

H. Understand physiological adaptations to exercise:

  • Adaptations to metabolic conditioning
  • Causes, signs, symptoms and effects of overtraining and detraining

I. Understand the anatomical, physiological and biomechanical differences of athletes (based on age, gender, training status, specific sport or activity, etc.):

  • Anatomical, physiological and biomechanical differences among athletes
  • Effects of age and developmental status on performance
  • Implications of training status (i.e., untrained versus trained) on designing a training program

J. Understand the psychological techniques used to enhance training and performance:

  • Motivational techniques (reward system, mental imagery techniques, reinforcement strategies, visualization, etc.)
  • Methods that enhance motor learning and skill acquisition (instruction, feedback, whole versus part practice, etc.)
  • Attentional control and decision making (focus, arousal, management)
  • Confidence and positive self talk

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Nutrition (21 scored questions)

A. Explain nutritional factors affecting health and performance:

  • Health-related and performance-related application of nutrition concepts (food groups, food exchanges, “MyPyramid,” glycemic index, etc.)
  • Basic nutritional needs of individuals and the unique nutritional needs of athletes for carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals
  • Caloric expenditure based on exercise intensity (e.g., VO2, Kcals/min, METs)
  • Coronary artery disease risk factors associated with dietary choices (e.g., a high intake of cholesterol, triglycerides and/or saturated fat)
  • Effects of hydration status and electrolyte balance/imbalance on health and performance
  • Nutritional density (i.e., foods with a large amount of a given nutrient)

B. Explain the strategies and results of manipulating food choices and training methods to maximize performance:

  • Training/nutritional programs that produce specific changes in body composition (i.e.,   fat loss or lean body mass increase)
  • Composition and timing of nutrient and fluid intake before, during and after an exercise session or a sport event (i.e., when to consume and how much to consume)
  • Nutritional factors that affect muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength and aerobic endurance

C. Recognize signs, symptoms and behaviors associated with eating disorders and altered eating habits:

  • Signs and symptoms associated with disordered eating, bulimia and anorexia
  • Body composition changes and performance variations associated with eating disorders
  • Recognize the nature of an athlete’s nutritional status and determine the appropriateness of a referral to a qualified health care professional

D. Explain the effects, risks and alternatives of common performance-enhancing substances and methods:

  • Ergogenic aids and dietary supplements (creatine, carbohydrate loading, anabolic steroids, blood doping, etc.)
  • Signs and symptoms of ergogenic aid abuse

Practical/Applied

The Practical/Applied section, which is 2.5 hours in length, consists of 110 scored multiple-choice questions and 15 non-scored multiple-choice questions pertaining to program design, exercise techniques, testing and evaluation and organization/administration. Forty of these are in conjunction with a video, which mainly assesses competencies in exercise techniques, functional anatomy and testing procedures.

Section and Domain Percent of Exam Section Number of Questions
Exercise Technique 35% 38
Program Design 35% 39
Organization and Administration 12% 13
Testing and Evaluation 18% 20
Non-scored Questions 15
Total
100%
125
Length of Exam Section
2.5 hours

 

Exercise Technique (38 scored questions)

A. Describe, teach and evaluate proper resistance training exercise technique:

  • Free weight training equipment: 
    • Teach proper preparatory body and limb position (e.g., grip, stance, alignment)
    • Teach the execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
    • Identify and correct improper exercise technique
  • Resistance machines (pulley, cam, hydraulic, friction, air, tubing, etc.): 
    • Teach proper preparatory body and limb position (e.g., grip, stance, alignment)
    • Teach execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
    • Identify and correct improper exercise technique
  • Alternative modes (core, stability, balance, calisthenic, body weight only, functional, etc.):
    • Teach the proper preparatory body and limb position (e.g., grip, stance, alignment)
    • Teach the execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
    • Identify and correct improper exercise technique

B. Describe, teach and evaluate proper plyometric exercise technique:

  • Teach the proper preparatory body and limb position (e.g., stance, posture, alignment)
  • Teach execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
  • Identify and correct improper exercise technique

C. Describe, teach and evaluate proper speed/sprint technique (resisted and assisted sprinting, speed-strength, etc.):

  • Teach proper preparatory body and limb position (e.g., stance, posture, alignment)
  • Teach execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
  • Identify and correct improper exercise technique

D. Describe, teach and evaluate proper agility technique (forward, backward and lateral movements; turn, transition and stop-and-go maneuvers, etc.):

  • Teach proper preparatory body and limb position (e.g., stance, posture, alignment)
  • Teach execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
  • Identify and correct improper exercise technique

E. Describe, teach and evaluate proper aerobic endurance exercise technique:

  • Cardiovascular equipment (treadmill, stationary bike, rowing machine, stair-stepper, elliptical trainer, etc.):
    • Explain machine programming and setup
    • Teach the proper preparatory body and limb position (e.g., grip, stance, alignment)
    • Teach the execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
    • Identify and correct improper exercise technique
  • General body-only activities (walking, jogging, running, swimming, etc.):
    • Teach the execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
    • Identify and correct improper exercise technique

F. Describe, teach and evaluate proper flexibility exercise technique:

  • Static stretching exercises: 
    • Teach the proper preparatory body and limb position (e.g., stance, posture, alignment)
    • Teach the execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
    • Identify and correct improper exercise technique
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching exercises:
    • Teach the proper preparatory body and limb position (e.g., stance, posture, alignment)
    • Identify proper body mechanics to perform PNF-stretching on an athlete
    • Teach the execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
    • Identify and correct improper exercise technique
  • Dynamic and ballistic stretching exercises:
    • Teach the proper preparatory body and limb position (e.g., stance, posture, alignment)
    • Teach the execution of proper technique (e.g., body and limb positions, movement mechanics, breathing)
    • Identify and correct improper exercise technique

G. Describe and teach effective spotting procedures and techniques:

  • Identify the number of spotters needed for a given situation or exercise
  • Teach correct spotter location (i.e., the physical placement of the spotter or spotters in relation to the lifter)
  • Teach proper body and limb placement required when spotting the lifter (once in the correct position)

Program Design (39 scored questions)

A. Design training programs that maximize performance by incorporating various training methods and modes based upon an athlete’s health status, strength and conditioning levels and training goals:

  • Describe different types of training methods and modes (resistance, plyometric, speed/sprint, interval, agility, aerobic, flexibility, etc.)
  • Manipulate and combine various training methods and modes to reach a certain goal or outcome (muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength, power, aerobic endurance, etc.)

B. Design training programs that maximize performance and muscle balance by selecting exercises based upon an athlete’s health status, strength and conditioning levels and training goals:

  • Identify exercises that are specific to movement patterns of a particular sport (e.g., an exercise  and its application and effectiveness for a sport, an exercise and movements involved in a sport, an exercise and muscles used in sport)
  • Classify exercises (as power, core, assistance, structural, etc.) based upon the type or number of the involved muscle group or groups (e.g., what exercise trains certain muscle(s); how to change an exercise to change the involved muscles)
  • Classify exercises based upon type of kinetic chain movement (i.e., open or closed)
  • Choose exercises to promote muscular balance (hamstring versus quadriceps, upper body versus lower body, etc.)

C. Design training programs that maximize performance by applying the principles of exercise order based upon an athlete’s health status, strength and conditioning levels and training goals:

  • Select the order of exercises based on the training goal
  • Differentiate between various exercise orders (large to small muscle groups, alternating push with pull, alternating upper body exercises with lower body exercises, warm-up/workout/cool-down, plyometric then aerobic exercise, etc.)

D. Design training programs that maximize performance by determining and assigning appropriate exercise intensities (load, resistance, heart rate, etc.) based upon an athlete’s health status, strength and conditioning levels and training goals: 

  • Describe commonly accepted methods for assigning an exercise load (a percent of the 1RM or the athlete’s body weight, RM loads, etc.) or exercise heart rate (i.e., a percent of maximum heart rate or functional capacity, the Karvonen method)
  • Assign a load or exercise heart rate based on the training goal (muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength, power, aerobic endurance, etc.)

E. Design training programs that maximize performance by determining and assigning appropriate training volumes (defined as sets x reps) based upon an athlete’s health status, strength and conditioning levels and training goals:

  • Explain the outcomes associated with the manipulation of training volume
  • Assign a volume based on the training goal (muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength, power, aerobic endurance, etc.)

F. Design training programs that maximize performance by determining and assigning appropriate work periods/duration and rest periods, recovery methods and training frequencies based upon an athlete’s health status, strength and conditioning levels and training goals:

  • Assign a work period/duration, a rest period and recovery methods based on the training goal (muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength, power, aerobic endurance, etc.)
  • Assign a training frequency based on the training goal (muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength, power, aerobic endurance, etc.)

G. Design training programs that maximize performance by determining and assigning appropriate exercise progression based upon an athlete’s health status, strength and conditioning levels and training goals:

  • Describe when and how to progress exercise mode, intensity, duration and frequency
  • Assign an exercise progression based on the training goal (muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength, power, aerobic endurance, etc.)

H. Design training programs that maximize performance by applying the principles of periodization:

  • Explain periodization (the periods/phases/cycles, the types of training programs associated with the phases/periods/cycles, etc.)
  • Describe training variations based on a sport season (i.e., a certain training period, phase, or cycle for a specific sport season)
  • Design a periodized program specific to the demands of a sport or sport position
  • Design a periodized program specific to an athlete’s training level

I. Design training programs for an injured athlete during the reconditioning period (i.e., assigning safe and appropriate exercises for a given injury or condition under the direction of an athletic trainer, physical therapist or physician)

Organization and Administration (13 scored questions)

A. Determine how to design, layout and organize the strength and conditioning facility:

  • Understand the optimal physical design considerations when constructing the facility (flooring, ceiling height, mirror placement, ventilation, lighting, etc.)
  • Recognize the characteristics of the equipment within the facility
  • Apply strategies to efficiently arrange and properly space the equipment within the facility
  • Identify the specific space and equipment needs of the athletic groups that use the facility

B. Identify the primary duties and responsibilities of the members of the strength and conditioning staff:

C. Determine the policies and procedures associated with the operation of the strength and conditioning facility:

  • Establish criteria that defines access to the facility
  • Establish the rules individuals must follow when using the facility
  • Apply strategies to organize and effectively schedule the athletic groups that use the facility

D. Create a safe training environment within the strength and conditioning facility:

  • Establish checklists and schedules for facility maintenance and cleaning
  • Establish checklists and schedules for equipment maintenance and cleaning
  • Identify common litigation issues and ways to reduce or minimize the risk of liability within the facility
  • Establish procedures to respond to an emergency in the training environment
  • Recognize symptoms relating to overuse, overtraining and temperature-induced illness
  • Recognize when to refer an athlete to and/or seek input from an appropriate health care professional (athletic trainer, physical therapist, physician, registered dietitian, etc.)

Testing and Evaluation (20 scored questions)

A. Select and administer appropriate tests to maximize test reliability and validity:

  • Select a valid test or tests based upon the unique aspects of a sport, sport position and training status
  • Develop the test administration procedures that use equipment, personnel and time efficiently

B. Administer testing protocols and procedures properly to ensure reliable data collection:

  • Describe testing equipment and its proper use
  • Explain the testing procedures (warm-up, how to test, test order, proper rest between trials, etc.)
  • Administer the tests to assess physical characteristics (body weight, girth, body fat, height, etc.) and evaluate performance (muscular strength, power, anaerobic capacity, muscular endurance, aerobic endurance, agility, speed, flexibility, etc.)

C. Evaluate and interpret test results:

  • Recognize typical and atypical test results based on a sport or sport position (i.e., determine if the test result was good or poor)
  • Determine how the test results should influence the design or modification of the training program (i.e., determine which outcome of training needs to be improved in a future program)

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